It is also known as the alternative vote, transferable vote, ranked-choice voting (RCV), single-seat ranked-choice voting, or preferential voting.  Federal judge Lance Walker rejected this claim, and the 1st circuit court denied Poliquin's emergency appeal, leading to Poliquin dropping his claim.. , Britons and New Zealanders generally call IRV the "alternative vote" (AV), while in Canada it is called "Ranked Choice" or "Ranked Choice Voting". IRV can also be considered to be a single-winner variant of the single transferable vote (STV) system. It is no surprise, then, that reformers in many nations continuously strive to improve the way their governments are elected. If not, then the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated. (The Borda Count, STV, and the Supplementary Vote are also preferential systems). This can recurse: if a mutual majority exists within the mutual majority, then the majority becomes a collegiate over the minority, and the inner mutual majority solely decides the votes of this collegiate. The Condorcet winner criterion states that "if a candidate would win a head-to-head competition against every other candidate, then that candidate must win the overall election". Partial results exist for other models of voter behavior in the two-round method: see the two-round system article's criterion compliance section for more information. Round 2 – In the second round of tabulation, we remove the city with the least first-place support from consideration. These 35 democracies were chosen because they had a population of at least 2 million and received a 2012 Freedom House Average Freedom Ranking of 1 or 2. This is shown in the example Australian ballot above. An additional 34 countries mix proportionality and winner-take all. The same argument was advanced in opposition to IRV in Maine. In the initial count, the first preference of each voter is counted and used to order the candidates. The spoiler effect is when a difference is made to the anticipated outcome of an election due to the presence on the ballot paper of a candidate who (predictably) will lose. IRV led to San Francisco candidates campaigning more cooperatively.  A simulation of IRV in the 2010 UK general election by the Electoral Reform Society concluded that the election would have altered the balance of seats among the three main parties, but the number of seats won by minor parties would have remained unchanged.. Because the ballot marking is more complex, there can be an increase in spoiled ballots. Conversely, a practical benefit of 'contingent voting' is expediency and confidence in the result with only two rounds. The winner of the election is Knoxville. The first part of the count is to record the first choice for all candidates. That has massive distorting effects on how our country works. Approval voting is a system which allows voters to cast votes for as many candidates as they like in a given race rather than just one single candidate. Sixty-four countries use winner-take-all, including 37 that use plurality, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. In the general case, instant-runoff voting can be susceptible to strategic nomination: whether or not a candidate decides to run at all can affect the result even if the new candidate cannot themselves win. Ballots are initially counted for each voter's top choice. IRV can be seen as a special case of the single transferable vote method, which began use in the 1850s. The structure of elections and a nation's choice of electoral system can have profound implications for the effectiveness of democratic governance. This article from November 1 explains ranked choice and other alternative ways to count votes. While similar to "sequential-elimination" IRV, top-two can produce different results. The simplest form of runoff voting is the two-round system, which typically excludes all but two candidates after the first round, rather than gradually eliminating candidates over a series of rounds. Everything else stays the same. IRV may also be part of a larger runoff process: The common feature of these IRV variations is that one vote is counted per ballot per round, with rules that eliminate the weakest candidate(s) in successive rounds. Of course, a national popular vote is fairer, especially if a new electoral law could ensure a true majority winner through a two-round system or an instant-runoff, ranked-choice voting mechanism. The method is also used in local elections around the world, including New York City offices starting in 2021. In the modern era, voting equipment can be used to administer the count either partially or fully. IRV in its true form was first used in Western Australia, in the 1908 state election.  The variant used for this election was a "contingent vote", where all candidates but two are eliminated in the first round. That means a lot of Wright voters would have had to stay home for their demographic to matter at all, causing a participation criterion failure. The first two (fictional elections) demonstrate the principle of IRV. The others offer examples of the results of real elections. IRV elections that require a majority of cast ballots but not that voters rank all candidates may require more than a single IRV ballot due to exhausted ballots. As in the second round with Chattanooga, all of the ballots currently counting for Nashville are added to the totals of Memphis or Knoxville based on which city is ranked next on that ballot. The Hare-Clark system was introduced for the Tasmanian House of Assembly at the 1909 state election. If this were a first-past-the-post election, Memphis would win because it received the most votes. In the 2013 survey, for example, 5% of respondents said that candidates criticized each other "a great deal of the time" as opposed to 25% in non-IRV cities. In instant-runoff voting, as with other ranked election methods, each voter ranks the list of candidates in order of preference.  The argument that IRV represents plural voting is sometimes used in arguments over the "fairness" of the method, and has led to several legal challenges in the United States. As in IRV, there is only one round of voting. Ationg said online voting was nothing new as the method had been used in other developed countries like in the Netherlands and United States. To win, a candidate must have a majority of vote; that is, three or more. Here's a rundown on how electoral colleges work in those countries, according to … Voters use numbers to mark their preferences on the ballot paper. In Ann Arbor, Michigan, for example, arguments over IRV in letters to newspapers included the belief that IRV "gives minority candidate voters two votes", because some voters' ballots may count for their first choice in the first round and a lesser choice in a later round. If 371 (12.6%) out of the 2951 backers of the Republican candidate (those who also preferred the Democrat over the Progressive candidate for mayor) had insincerely raised the Democrat from their second choice to their first (not changing their rankings relative to their least favorite candidate, the Progressive), the Democrat would then have advanced to the final round (instead of their favorite), defeated any opponent, and proceeded to win the IRV election. The costs of printing and counting ballot papers for an IRV election are no different from those of any other method using the same technology. Preferential voting has many variations. Terminology. The consistency criterion states that if dividing the electorate into two groups and running the same election separately with each group returns the same result for both groups, then the election over the whole electorate should return this result. The preferences of the voters would be divided like this: It takes three rounds to determine a winner in this election. With Chattanooga eliminated and its votes redistributed, the second round finds Memphis still in first place, followed by Knoxville in second and Nashville has moved down to third place. In recent decades, major changes in electoral systems have been adopted in New Zealand, France, Italy and Japan. They may make only a single choice, known as "bullet voting", and some jurisdictions accept an "X" as valid for the first preference. The instant-runoff voting method is then detailed. However, these strategies rely on the assumption that supporters of a party or candidate are receptive to advice on the other preferences on their ballot. There are five voters, "a" through "e". The term instant runoff voting is derived from the name of a class of voting methods called runoff voting.