This desire to help others can be dangerous in a sense as well. For the German and Nachlass passages I rely on the KSA, and passages are cited by year, notebook number, note number. This ambiguity has consequently shaped the terrain of contemporary inquiry into this important concept in such a way that typically consists in either one of these refined features as sufficient to account for it. that it has a will to power, justice is a function of power (again, Hobbes). Being great is not simply a case of being a certain way. 44–48). exist, accordingly, only after the institution of the law…. The path is unique to the individual and so, he must not rely on others to help him climb. 6. in terms of purely formal properties), I agree that the content of greatness better explained by appealing at least partly the pursuit and achievement of goals. On Nietzsche and Emerson, see Cavell, Stanley, “Aversive Thinking: Emersonian Representations in Heidegger and Nietzsche,” in Conditions Handsome and Unhandsome: The Constitution of Emersonian Perfectionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). He had diverse but strong tastes in feasting, romance, in matters of war, and took pleasure in challenges. Kaufmann, Walter (New York: Vintage Books, 1974);HH=Human, Al-Too-Human, trans. Then, keeping your place will be impossible because you did not know the struggle. It is not too surprising that Nehamas interprets Nietzsche's Napoleon in this way. As I suggest later, there may be some evidence of Nietzsche changing his mind about these conditions this from his early to mature period. Before presenting what these qualities are, there is an ambiguity, both in Nietzsche’s work and also in much of the secondary literature, that needs to be made explicit. This results in a Nietzschean understanding of the concept as extremely exclusive. Politicians have a better chance: they either walk in the footsteps of their people, are pave the way for them. When Nietzsche refers to the higher man, in contrast to the slave and his slave morality, does he mean to say that thoughts least thought off are usually the ones that make one a higher man? 6. If, for example, we accept the condition that all great individuals exercise their will to power to a high degree, then they are (on some accounts of the doctrine) by definition engaging in the pursuit of goals.Footnote 15 The point here is that if one fails to have and pursue goals, one fails to possess an internal condition necessary for greatness, and not because of a lack of achievement per se. I guess my question is, what makes one a higher human? That’s the whole point, because the logical game is a consequence of the character. But even so, the properties of greatness that I have argued Nietzsche identifies admit of degree. Nietzsche describes Goethe as “in an epoch disposed to the unreal, a convinced realist” (TI “Expeditions,” 49). Let us assume for the moment that Nietzsche holds that building an empire is a noble achievement. I shall adopt this as a working assumption here. I shall return to this point later, but for the purposes of structure I shall hereafter follow Leiter and others in referring to character traits as just those dispositions and executive virtues Nietzsche venerates. However, this is what Nietzsche wants recreated by the individual. Does one cease to be great in such cases? Thus E. E. Sleinis writes that Nietzsche's, “great and unwavering admiration for Goethe is not just admiration for the totality of his works, it is an admiration for the man.… The works are a sign of the greatness of the man, they do not exhaust it” (Nietzsche's Revaluation of Values [Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1994], p. 132). Similar views are expressed elsewhere: he recognises a “fundamental will of the spirit” in higher men that seeks “to be master internally and externally.” Moreover, “out of multiplicity it has the will to simplicity, a will which binds together and tames, which is imperious, and domineering” (BGE, §230). A virtuous and highly skilled individual can direct his efforts towards valueless goals. Twilight of the Idols, trans. But that bum would know if he’s great or not. Caro, Del, Nietzsche Contra Nietzsche, p. 40. So, the higher man must have a mistrust towards such a group. Change ). A related and perhaps more pressing problem with the Pure Character View is that it leaves open the possibility that these noble individuals can focus their efforts on and pursue trivial or worthless ends. Both point to the vibrant character of the person, not to any work or doctrine they created. Perhaps one reason is that a person simply has no goals. This individual is concerned with himself and that may sound narcissistic however the idea is that in order to help others, one must help himself first. 48. Nonetheless it is of interest that Nietzsche may have altered his view. 40. Greater risk, greater rewards if you want. The genius of Nietzsche is he has a lot of fun with the history of philosophy. Leiter quotes this passage (2002, p. 117), and from only the first half of BGE, §273, to support the view that treating others instrumentally is a necessary character trait of the great individual. Are you brave? Except that there is a great caveat. He refers to the man who can “extend his will across great stretches of his life” (KSA, 1885, 34[96]; WP, §962) and who forms a part of a new “caste” who will rule Europe with “a protracted terrible will of its own which could set its objectives thousands of years ahead” (BGE, §208). Others who argue that the concept is intelligible and knowable often present little more than abstract descriptions. for this article. I have not sought to discuss every controversy surrounding the concept of greatness here, but I have attempted to provide clarity on at least three ambiguities and assumptions regarding its criteria. As for Arts, they are expression and nothing more. Supporters of the Pure Character View may point to Nietzsche’s repeated emphasis on character traits, and relative silence regarding particular accomplishments, as sufficient to defend their view. This must be done willingly, choosing to face the uncomfortable in their life. It is worth noting the parallel between Napoleon's comment and the title of Nietzsche's autobiography, Ecce Homo (“behold the man”). - However, by conceding an expansion of what properties “character” includes, this move is perhaps too quick.