Toxicology 259(1–2):33–45, Newsted JL, Beach SA, Gallagher SP et al (2008) Acute and chronic effects of perfluorobutane sulfonate (pfbs) on the mallard and northern bobwhite quail[J]. Influenza vaccine response in adults exposed to perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate. Because COVID-19 is a new public health concern, there is still much we don’t know. Risk Anal 28(2):251–269, Vestergren R, Cousins IT (2009) Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates [J]. Research has … Environ Sci Technol 45(19):8006–8014, Tian Z, Kim SK, Shoeib M et al (2016) Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) via house dust in Korea: implication to exposure pathway [J]. Environ Sci Technol 41(24):8328–8334, Wang QY, Wang XM, Ding X (2014) Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (tfa) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication [J]. However, these studies are not consistent and may not have looked at other factors, such as smoking habits. x���wTS��Ͻ7�P����khRH �H�. Humans can be exposed to PFCs by ingesting contaminated drinking water and seafood, inhaling polluted indoor air, and other contaminated media, the way of exposure is wide and undetectable. Mar Pollut Bull 51(8–12):658–668, Scott BF, Macdonald RW, Kannan K et al (2005) Trifluoroacetate profiles in the arctic, Atlantic, and pacific oceans [J]. Reprod Toxicol 27(3–4):342–351, Wang ZY, Cousins IT, Scheringer M et al (2015) Hazard assessment of fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (pfaas) and their precursors: status quo, ongoing challenges and possible solutions [J]. There is very limited scientific information on the health impacts of other PFAS chemicals, such as PFHpA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFBS. People exposed to high levels may have an increased risk of kidney cancer or testicular cancer. There have been many studies that looked at possible relationships between levels of PFAS chemicals in blood and harmful human health effects. Not logged in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13(5):299–307, Thompson J, Eaglesham G, Mueller J (2011) Concentrations of pfos, pfoa and other perfluorinated alkyl acids in australian drinking water [J]. One part per billion = 1 ug/L (microgram per liter) Environ Res 154:145–151, Hu XDC, Dassuncao C, Zhang XM et al (2018) Can profiles of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources? Most of these studies have tested doses of PFAS that are higher than levels found in the environment. It is possible that the other PFAS chemicals may have health impacts similar to PFOA and PFOS. In a highly exposed community living near a chemical plant, PFOS and PFOA have been associated with pre-eclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension), birth defects (PFOA only), and increased uric acid levels – a marker of heart disease. Mar Pollut Bull 58(9):1326–1333, Wang BB, Cao MH, Zhu HD et al (2013) Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water from hanjiang river in Wuhan, China [J]. prevalent PFCs found in human serum. /Filter /FlateDecode Colorado Health Information Data Set (CoHID), Local Pubic Health and Environment Resources, Air Quality - Monitoring, Modeling and Data, Perfluorinated compounds - health recommendations, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Colorado: State & National Resources, Toxicology and environmental epidemiology, Perfluorinated compounds in drinking water, water treated by a reverse osmosis system, SE El Paso County Preliminary Assessment of Cancer and Birth Outcomes, Addendum to SE El Paso County Preliminary Assessment of Cancer and Birth Outcomes.