Four-choice olfactometer tests were conducted to evaluate response of plum curculio to multiple treatments comprising the lures and their key chemical components (i.e., 3 odor treatments and 1 control). The aim was to determine the biologically active chemical components in each lure. <>stream Each vial was then placed in one of the chambers of the four-choice olfactometer. D. L. Horton, “Southeastern peach insect pest management—its evolution and implementation,” Tech. endobj Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana. Although BEN has been shown to degrade rapidly to benzoic acid and trans-stilbene in the laboratory , we did not detect these compounds in our analyses when BZ was exposed in the laboratory for up to 48 hours.
Together, these results indicate the nonattractiveness of BZ and GA lures in our olfactometer bioassays. endobj
It is hoped that the results of this laboratory study will assist with the interpretation of field data on captures of plum curculio in traps baited with these lures.
endobj The physiological conditions of the weevils had no significant effect on their response to the lures. However, it should be noted that the study by  used overwintering adults whose physiological conditions were largely unknown (with the exception of diet), whereas the weevils used in the present study were from a laboratory source and with known physiological conditions. Also, captures of weevils in traps baited with this combined lure or other synthetic attractants can decline rapidly after fruit set due to intense competition from volatiles released by rapidly developing fruit [18, 29]. 28 0 obj In the second experiment, the most attractive single lure determined in the first experiment (i.e., PE) was selected and compared against combined (two component) lure treatments in binary tests (i.e., PE versus BZ + PE, PE versus BZ + GA, and PE versus PE + GA) to determine the type of interaction (i.e., additive, synergistic, neutral, or negative/inhibitory) between any two lures. Plum curculio has definite varietal preferences based principally on regional reproductive success.
endstream Plum essence (PE), a commercially available synthetic mixture of plant essence, is also an attractant for plum curculio [23, 24]. Groups of five females or males of each physiological treatment were released in the olfactometer and replicated six times per sex. 19 0 obj 10 0 obj This finding is in agreement with previous reports of PE as an attractant for plum curculio in the field [9, 23, 24]. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. BZ: commercial benzaldehyde lure; BEN: pure synthetic benzaldehyde; TCB: pure synthetic 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene; PE: commercial plum essence lure. �26S073QI�r � To test this hypothesis regarding “repellent” or “dampening” effect of TCB when formulated with the BZ or PE lure, a second experiment was conducted which compared PE lure (found to be highly attractive in the previous lure tests), pure TCB, and mixture of PE and TCB (PE + TCB).
24 0 obj In each test, two lure treatments (binary test) and two controls were compared: (a) BZ versus PE; (b) PE versus GA; and (c) BZ versus GA. The GA lure dispenser consisted of a heat-sealed polymer membrane. �26S073QI�r � An intelligent grower can skip a few such trees when applying orchard-wide repellents.
Therefore, the nonattractiveness of BZ lure and BEN could not be attributed to degradation to benzoic acid and other compounds. The rearing procedures followed that of [35, 36]. One difference was that three odor treatments were compared simultaneously (i.e., multiple treatment comparisons). In other words, only two lure treatments (binary tests) were compared at a given time. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Type/XObject/Subtype/Form/BBox[0 0 600.05 792]/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]/FormType 1>>stream
These varying results on lure performance may be related to several factors including the type of insect (strains), physicochemical properties of the lures, and differential attractiveness of tree fruit species/varieties, prevailing orchard conditions, strain differences, and physiological state of weevils. Release rates of the tested commercial lures and synthetic pure compounds under laboratory conditions. <>>>/Contents 30 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>>
Our purpose is to manufacture high quality products that our customers can employ to reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides. The colony was periodically supplemented with weevils collected from the same field locations in Alabama. Two strains of plum curculio, namely, the northern and southern strains, are known to occur in continental North America. If TCB truly has a repellent or inhibitory effect, we would expect the combined PE + TCB treatment to be less attractive than PE lure. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � endstream endobj endobj Our products help to reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides. The results are in contrast to those reported by , which showed that starved weevils responded more than fed weevils to hexane extract of wild plum. �26S073QI�r � �26S073QI�r �
response of plum curculio to synthetic lure has been studied mostly in peach orchards in the south and in apple orchards in the north (e.g., Massachusetts and Quebec). <>>>/Contents 18 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Specifically, we evaluated the response of weevils of different physiological status (sex, age, diet, and mating) to single and combined lures of BZ, PE, and GA in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Weevils of different physiological states such as food deprivation (starved for 24 h versus fed ad libitum), age (preoviposition adults or 10–14-day olds versus oviposition-postoviposition adults or 20–24-day olds), and mating status (unmated versus mated) were tested in both experiments to determine the effect of the above physiological factors on the response of plum curculio to the lures. Released weevils were given 30 min to respond by walking into one of the four olfactometer arms.
This is a large 6x28”, heavy duty card, with no-mess adhesive, release paper, and twist tie hanger. Earlier studies identified several active compounds from host plants (both fruiting and nonfruiting parts) which are attractive to plum curculio [16, 17, 20, 21]. 27 0 obj The experiment was repeated seven times using fresh vials and compounds each time. The BZ and PE lures were in liquid form and were used without any major modifications through either dilution or mixing with solvents.
To use first hang on tree limb or other structure along with stink bug lure. The reduced attractiveness of the combined PE + TCB treatment relative to PE further supports this possibility. The answer to this question is possibly related to the presence of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in BZ lure. C. A. Walgenbach and W. E. Burkholder, “Factors affecting the response of the maize weevil. Fast order fulfillment - often ship the same day order is placed. Baiting traps with lures (plum essence or benzaldehyde) significantly increases trap catch, but the addition of pheromone baits only slightly increase (1.2:1) plum curculio captures in either trap. <>>>/Contents 12 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> The gravimetric release rate of PE was much higher than the release rates of the other treatments (Table 3). �*T0T0 Bi������f����� ��
�,��Yi���i?��d�Y2���1dAR ��c�B��^�V�eB���t>]u��;�ʄ�I�QE����=���J�h�z�l�W�)zO_�'MY�Xi���$�ee"�&Y���T��SQ�1Σ�i\�˲2R�g��z�b�U��a�'�˙.E����V�ӕuD�k�V)��R=�_�z��XJ��8v�l��E���.����?�SU����2�8ą���8�ΚP���8sr� Based on these results which indicated that the physiological conditions of adult plum curculio have very little effect on their response to the lures, data obtained for weevils of different physiological states (i.e., age, diet, and mating) were pooled by sex and analyzed using one-way ANOVA to compare response of each sex to different lure treatments. <>stream
We had expected that plum curculio, which uses the same resources (fruit) for food and oviposition, will show greater response to fruit-based odor when starved than when fed. Monitoring of plum curculio adults is difficult since they respond poorly to olfactory or visual traps. %PDF-1.4
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